The past perfect simple expresses an action taking place before a certain time in the past.
Example: I went for a walk when I had finished my work.
Form of Past Perfect Simple
Positive Negative Question
no differences I had spoken. I had not spoken. Had I spoken?
For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.
Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed
after final e, only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried